Monday, February 24, 2020
Discuss the development of Implied Terms in English Contract Law and how this is reflected in the current Sales of Goods - Essay Example For any contract under the English law, an offer must be made of terms which are accepted by the other party. Usually an offer can be an oral or a written statement. The contract is complete only if it is accepted by all the parties concerned. The duration till which a contract can be withdrawn is until the time of its acceptance, but as soon as the contract is established it becomes a binding obligation. Most contracts are subject to the doctrine of consideration and are enforceable only if something is given in return of a promise to perform. Only the parties related to the contract can enforce the contract. If a contract is made on behalf of another party, that does not have any good consideration, that party cannot enforce it. If all the parties concerned with a contract make the same mistake in relation to it, then they will never have reached the agreement they intended. If an event occurs which destroys the contract this too will render the contract void. An agreement is a contract that contains the three basic elements of intention to create legal relations, offer and acceptance, and consideration. There arises a need for unification of law in Europe. Any businessman trading in Europe knows that some of his contracts with foreign parties will be governed by foreign laws. The unknown laws of the foreign countries add to such risks. But one who trades with a few countries only, or is about to make a big deal, will sometimes try to obtain information on the foreign contract law or law that come into question. Such a person will often realize that the foreign laws are difficult to understand for him and his lawyer. Many businessmen hope that no dispute with their foreign partners will arise and that it will then be settled amicably. Most disputes are in fact settled amicably. But in the negotiations leading to a settlement the applicable foreign law will often be a factor of importance and it could be disastrous to be ignorant of them. Fear of the unknown law and incomprehension keep many potential exporters and importers away from the European market. The existences of varieties of laws hamper the mobility of the European businessman. It is a non-tariff barrier to the trade. It is the aim of the European Union to abolish the legal restrictions of the intra-union trade. It follows from this objective that differences of law which restrict this trade should be abolished. The highly intensive and increasing international trade creates a need for legal unifications, paving way to CISG in the year 1980. CISG has been adopted by most countries with important international trade. In the countries of the European Union where the trade has increased many times since the Common Market was established, unification of the contract law will become more urgent the more the trade grows. In case the contract has been induced by some kind of misrepresentation, the party who was misled may withdraw from the contract and thus treat the contract as invalid. Action must be invoked immediately after the misrepresentation is discovered. Suppose the misrepresentation was made innocently it must be proved that it was unreasonable for the party making it before the contract becomes invalid or void. The breach of contract is unlawful and is punishable. The remedy for the breach of contr
Friday, February 7, 2020
SOLAR WIND - Essay Example This would result in the gas from the corona, in its several million degrees, streaming away from the Sun at a speed much higher than the escape speed. The wind, being a plasma flow of high speed would carry along trapped magnetic fields. The solar wind would create the heliosphere described by Zeilik (265) as a massive bubble existing in the interstellar medium surrounding the Solar System. The heliosphere, at the solar minimum would be dominated by high latitude fast solar wind, but the slow variable wind emanating from all latitudes would dominate at and when approaching the solar. As the solar wind would be flowing away from the Sun to fill the heliosphere, it would interact with solar system bodies, including planets in various complex ways. The nature of interaction would be determined with whether the target has generated magnetic field internally such as the Earth, Mercury and other giant outer plants or not such as the comets, the Moon, Venus and Mars. According to Zeilik (265), the solar wind whips at typically 500 km/s at the orbit of the earth with the speed varying because the wind blows in gusts. The said particles, electrons and protons would take 5 days to travel from the Sun to the Earth. As the earth swims through the resultant solar spray, Matthaeus notes that it would catch some of the particles of the solar wind in its magnetic field leading to the creation of its magnetosphere. The solar windÃ¢â¬â¢s plasma, travelling as far as 100 AU, much farther than the orbit of Pluto would carry along with it remnants of the magnetic field of the Sun. It is this transported field that Zeilik (265) attributes to the formation of the magnetic field that exists between planets. This field would interact with comets forming tails, and with planets forming magnetospheres. The cometsÃ¢â¬â¢ plasma tails and the aurorae have been noted to point away from the sun. The interaction of the solar winds with the magnetosphere through the temporary
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Internal marketing Essay Internal marketing is of much importance to an organization. For any organization to thrive, it must focus on the efficiency of the marketing plan. The internal marketing plan within a firm fosters the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees and all its staff members to being customers of the products that they produce. When employees of an organization purchase the products that they produce, they attract external markets since the public out there will realize how important the products are to them, as much as to the employees. Members of staff are seen as both suppliers of the goods and also the customers of the products. This plan helps in strengthening the firm to employee relationship. When the firm management relates well with the employees, they are in a way motivated hence quality services will in turn be provided to the customers. Customers will be retained within the organization, thus enabling the company achieve a competitive advantage. It will be in a position to increase its sales according to the rampant growing demand. Also, the company will increase the process of profit making. In essence, efficiency in internal marketing allows for efficient external marketing efforts (Kotler Armstrong, 2009). A good internal marketing plan usually has distinctive features. For instance, it should create a culture that enables it to outstand over the vast competitive markets. It is achievable when workers are encouraged to be creative and innovative, responsible and accountable. Employees should be given a chance to exploit their abilities and also to act in capacity as accountable leaders. The plan should also articulate equity, fairness, recognition and motivation of outstanding performers. Employees should not be treated according to their rank position, race or gender. This has been a major setback to development hence it should be avoided by all means. It should also accommodate room for furthering the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ skills and knowledge. By fairness, an organization and its staff at large are encouraged to practice and embrace it. For example when someone close dies, support should be provided to his family. The organization can effectively deal with this issue through setting aside emergency funds (Ahmed Rafiq, 2002). Coca cola as a company has embraced the use of internal marketing plan within its organization, and this has seen it stand still and strong despite the competition offered by Pepsi company which is as well a manufacturer of soft drinks. The company has been strategically managed and thus its products have been wide spread, not only in the United States but also to the rest of the world. It has adopted the use of the 7ps of marketing. The 7ps involves Product, Place, Price and Promotion, Physical Environment, People, Process. Product shows what the company produces and supplies to its vast markets. Examples of such products are sprite, coke and fanta, which mainly dominate the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s markets. Place indicates the actual placement of the manufacturing firm. Currently, manufacture of coca cola products have been spread all over the world. Price is the most important aspect of marketing. The company is supposed to regulate the prices through the advice of senior sales representatives. It is the marked price that determines the number of customers an organization will have. Customers should be made aware of the recommended retail prices of the beverages produced. This is usually done so as to discourage the intermediaries from exploiting the customers. When goods are overpriced, the organizations competitors might take advantage of this to take away the customers. Coca Cola Company has taken an initiative of inscribing the products recommended prices in the bottle tops, thus preventing occurrence of inconveniences. In marketing, promotion enables the people to know the kind of products the company produces and also gives them a reason why they should purchase them. Promotion activities are crucial because it is the determining factor whether the business will stand or fall. Physical environment also plays an important role in marketing. The surrounding and the way people domiciling around where a company intends to establish its market agrees to allow the sales agent carry out its activities determines the business marketing future. People may be very hostile; hence the business may fail to establish its markets. The processes actually portray the channels a product passes through before being delivered to the end consumer. This may again involve how the consumer will handle the product. The employees of this company are given responsibility to manage brands through efficient marketing and also given priority to lay down achievable business strategies (Drake, Gulman Roberts, 2005). Managing directors of the company are spread all over the world and the company entrusts them to establish reliable distribution channels, the targeted consumers and the marketing tools that boosts the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ sales. To ensure that it earns huge profits, the company has increased its sales employees and surely this act has enabled it to be at the top rank in the annual ranking of the best brands in the world. Such sales agents of the company do put into consideration a good customer relationship. They have a sense of efficiency in responding to customers needs thus majority of the consumers are retained. To obtain its employees, the coca cola company carries out recruitments. For one to qualify as an employee, he/she must pass the exams administered to them by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s directors. Also, they are taken through series of interviews and questionnaires, and their competences checked against the requirements of the company. While interviewing, the managers poses questions related to risk management, time management, how to attend to problems and also issues that focuses on leadership skills. After the employees are hired by the company, they are fed with adequate information about the company. This includes how it carries out its day to day activities, its mission and vision. In addition, the organizations goals and objectives are clearly stated to them. This allows the firm management to work together as one with its employees with target of realizing the successful outcome of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. Employees work output is usually measured in this company on yearly basis. They are rated according to how they have embraced the technology, how they have fostered a sense of leadership and also by how far they established a solid relationship with the consumers. In addition, their innovativeness is recognized and this is checked through analyzing how successful they have been in bringing the outsiders into the company. Their results in terms of making the company realize goals are normally detailed, and the outstanding performers motivated. This motivation can either take form of increasing their monthly pay, promoting them to higher ranks or even recognizing them by word of mouth. Employees who are deemed as less productive are taken through a probation training. After probation, they are again sent back to the field, and if by this time the company does not see any impact in their productivity, they are left with no option other than dismissing them (Palmer, et al. , 2006). Internal marketing has been of great benefits to the coca cola company. Despite encouraging its workers perform better, it has also allowed them to acquire knowledge on being responsible and accountable. The internal marketing has also enhanced better understanding of the organization in line with the business carried out. Employees have been motivated to offer goods of quality to their customers through appreciation of their outstanding performance. This plan has again increased the consumer retention capacity and also personal developments to its employees. Non marketers within the organization has also benefited since they have learned how to carry out their duties in manner-like marketing. To sum up, the internal marketing plan has linked the coca cola business culture, vision, mission and its stipulated strategies with the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ social needs (Varey, 2002). Behind every successful organization, their must be a chain of problems encountered by it. Depending on how the firm embraces and handles their problems, their success is determined. Not all the employees accept change. Some becomes rigid when it comes to embracing the changes in technology. Some employees have deemed the use of computerized systems as a way of narrowing employment opportunities. Such employees can be termed as being illiterate from the fact that computers helps much in keeping efficient and effective inventory of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s undertakings. The company has also been faced problems based on incompetence of managers, much emphasis being in the use of interpersonal, conceptual and technical skills. The rampant spread of social evils such as corruption all over the world has seen the company employ incompetent personnel who lack skills in management. To add, the employed persons within the organization have been portrayed as not only having a poor understanding of the concepts of internal marketing but also as ignoring the orders from the senior staff (Kurtz, 2008). This has been a major problem towards successful establishment of internal marketing plan. Conflicts among the employees and also within different departments have also been a problem. People usually fight over the promotion position have made the work of implementing an internal structure difficult. To the side of the organization, some subordinates ignore the employees and does not put into consideration their welfare. Because of this, employees have reacted to fight for their rights and thus this has been a hindering factor. The spirit of synergy has also been greatly compromised since some top members of the organization over protect important information against its workers. Since there is no trust, the organization is as well less likely to embrace the concept of internal marketing. To summarize, the organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ structure is in most instances rigid. It does not give room for frequent reviewing and thus this has affected the internal concept of marketing. As from the benefits discussed earlier on, it is unavoidably necessary to have an internal marketing plan. This is not only for the success of the business in its environs but also all over the world. Some of the tools that should be put into consideration in successfully implementing a good internal marketing plan involve encouraging employees to have frequent contacts with the human resource managers. The contact can be enhanced through use of e-mails, faxes, telephone services, newsletters and more reliably through physical contacts. This will encourage them to air their views about the welfare of the organization. Also, they will have a chance to openly air their grievances, more especially on the way they are handled as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees. This allows fast reaction and implementation of their needs in a proper channel. More field work should be encouraged between the employees and their manager. This will allow them to share views freely with their manager and also gain experience. Since managers are normally viewed as people with experience, fieldworks will allow the employees too mingle with their managers and in the process taking note of work should be carried out (Dunmore,2002). Meetings of all the members of staff should be scheduled within reasonable time duration, for instance a fortnight or a month. This enables the organization as a whole to see how far they have gone in accomplishing its goals and objectives. It also allows them, together with its employees to check on the possible areas that they might have gone wrong in its day to day operations. From here, possible solutions are discussed and carefully thought out strategies of implementation laid out. Changes in career paths are also deemed as a tool of successfully implementing the internal marketing. The employees get to rate themselves on how good they are in sales department. They can check their performance in conjunction with the efforts they put while at work. If they find that marketing is a little pit strenuous, they can pave way for other junior employees and opt for other jobs. Changes in positions should be provided for to those employees initially put on probation. This allows them to be motivated to take up new roles within the organization. In addition, this decreases instances of boredom since the employees are subject to transfers to various departments and place of work. This act boosts the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ morale because they will be in a position to see as being attached to the company than before (Beamish Ashford, 2007). Internal marketing workshops and also leadership concept seminars should be embraced by the organization. The firm should encourage its employees to attend such seminars as it enables them gain skills that prepares them for future managerial positions. Such seminars also encourage mutual relationship within the organization. Positioning of the employees should be in conformance with the required qualifications. Social evils such as corruption should be avoided within the organization as this may impact negatively to the company. Such people hired through crooked ways are the ones to collapse the same company since they have gotten used to their bad habits.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Online communites The advance in technology during the past decade has made it possible for people all over the world to communicate with one another. Online communities consist of groups of people communicating to one another through the use of a computer. A number of online communities exist, anywhere from Jewish teen groups to Ultima Online, a communication game in where thousands of people may play at any given time. Groups ranging in size from a few people to thousands or even millions of people are forming communities in cyberspace. Online communities are a great way for people to communicate to one another. People have the potential to learn leadership, communication patterns, group boundaries, cohesion, alliances and subgroupings. Online groups are quite different than in-person groups. The fact that communication is through the use of text only, hiding or altering ones identity, and equalization of status are all unique benefits to joining an online community. Children with learning or develo pmental disabilities are areas of extraordinary interest. I currently teach a first through third grade class for the learning disabled at a local elementary school. Recently, a six year-old boy who has Autism has been enrolled in my class. His mother has been struggling, and has had much difficulty in raising him on her own as a single mother. Because Julian has recently been diagnosed, his mother is confused, and needs much support from her sons school and the surrounding community in which she lives. The tears of sadness in which poured from Juians mothers eyes, is what led me to want to dedicate my time as a teacher, joining support groups and chatrooms, to gather all of the resources I can to help Julian and his mother. My search will include participating in conversations with parents who have children with disabilities and other people in the community who might be able to provide some information and advice as well as various resources to, hopefully create a positive change in Julians life. Autism is a disorder in which I do not have an abundance of experience with. My knowledge of autism is unique to each child, and that brain scans will show up abnormal, where the chemicals in their brains will appear to be different than that of a healthy child. I am also aware that children with Autism have many behaviors that may be exhibited, such as repetitive behaviors where a child may repeatedly touch his or her head or different parts of the body.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Politics The effects of imperialism are both positive and negative. The positive effects are banning inhumane traditional practices such as sati and the dowry system, promoting widow remarriage and prohibiting child marriage. The negative effects are that Britain caused the traditional industries to crash. Also, poverty increased. British officials were paid out of the India treasury. Imperialism drained IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth. It destroyed India economically and politically. India became dependent due to imperialism. It destroyed IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s handicraft and small scale industries. The imperialistic powers treated India as a place to extend their power. Imperialism gradually destroyed India. While destroying India economically and politically, imperialism also had some good effects on India. With the spread of imperialism and colonialism , foreign powers took an interest in India and thus introduced new means of transport and communication. Modern technology and education were also introduced. negative effects: Racism grew (british to the indains) economic hardship, british were upset by the indain desire for self rule and nationlism, loss of self sufficiency, reduced food production which led to famines. Positive effects: railroads were built, communication grew due to the building of telephones, and the telegraph, desire for unity, modern economy, public health improved, english language more commonly used and learned British Imperialism in India Ã¢â¬Å"All the leadership had spent their early years in England. They were influenced by British thought, British ideas, that is why our leaders were always telling the British Ã¢â¬Å"How can you do these things? TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re against your own basic values.Ã¢â¬ . We had no hatred, in fact it was the other way round Ã¢â¬â it was their values that made us revolt.Ã¢â¬ -Aruna Asaf Ali, a leader of the Indian National Congress. (Masani, quoted in Wood, 32, 1989) There is no doubt that British imperialism had a large impact on India. India, having previously been an group of independent and semi-independent princedoms and territories, underwent great change under British administration. Originally intended to consolidate their hold on India by establishing a population that spoke the same language as their rulers, the British decision in the 1830s to educate Indians in a Western fashion, with English as the language of instruction, was the beginning of a chain of events, including a rise in Indian nationalism, that led to Indian resentment of British imperialism and ultimately to the loss of British control over India. One of the most important factors in the British loss of control over India was the establishment of English as a unifying language. Prior to British colonisation, India was fragmented and multi-lingual, with 15 major languages and around 720 dialects. English served as a common ground for Indians, and allowed separate cultural and ethnic groups to identify with each other, something which had rarely if ever occurred before on a grand scale. Although it was mainly educated Indians of a privileged caste who spoke English, these were the most influential people in terms of acting as facilitators for nationalist ideas to be communicated throughout the populace. The publication of magazines and journals in English was also a great influence on the rise of Indian nationalism. Although most Indians received nationalist ideas orally, these journals allowed Indians who were literate in English to come into contact with the ideas of social and political reformers. Political and social reform in India was achieved as a result of the European political principles brought to India by the British. Indians were Anglicised, and the British ideal for an Indian was to be Ã¢â¬Å"Indians in blood and colour, but English in tastes, opinions and intellectÃ¢â¬ , as put by one British legislator (Rich, 214, 1979). This Western education inevitably led to well-read Indians encountering European principles such as human rights, freedoms of speech, travel and association, and liberalism. This was in direct contrast to the imperialism practised by the British in India and to the Indian experience Ã¢â¬â one third of the subcontinent was ruled by Indian princes under British supervision, and the rest was directly controlled by the Viceroy and administered by about one thousand members of the civil service, all of them English (Rich, 215, 1979). This knowledge of principles such as autonomy and freedom naturally led to many Indians desiring this for their own nation, understandable since it appeared that the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest and most powerful nations were self-governing democracies, and this system was obviously successful. Part of the newfound desire for freedom experienced by many Indians was the desire for native religion and customs to be respected. It is widely accepted that the Indian mutiny of 1857 was at least partly generated by Indian resentment of British interference in Hindu customs. Indian soldiers in the army were required to bite the ends off gun cartridges that contained pig fat and cow fat, which offended both Muslims and Hindus. When troops refused to use the cartridges, Ã¢â¬Å"eighty sepoys were thrown into gaol for disobedience, an act which finally triggered the uprising.Ã¢â¬ (Richards, 301, 1994). This showed a great lack of cultural and religious sensitivity on the part of British officers. Although the mutiny was put down quickly, it shook British confidence in their power, and resulted in tighter control of their hold on India. This in turn led to further resentment of British imperialism, and claims that military regulations were an attempt by the British to destroy the traditional caste system. (Richards, 301, 1994). In believing so vehemently that the British system was superior to the far inferior Hindu traditions, the British officers were essentially contravening the ideals of freedom that were an important element of the Western European political principles that they so wanted to instill in the Indian peoples. Following the Mutiny of 1857, Indian nationalism gained much more momentum than had previously existed in the first part of the century. This movement consisted mostly of British-educated intellectuals, and ironically was made possible by the British encouragement of higher education, originally intended to create a middle management that could carry out simple administration jobs. Most of the Indian nationalists Ã¢â¬â most notably Ghandi Ã¢â¬â were educated in Western Europe and were well-read in Western notions of freedoms, civil liberties and autonomy. The Indian National Congress was the largest and most obvious nationalist group, formed so that Ã¢â¬Å"educated IndiansÃ¢â¬ ¦could express dissatisfaction with the British colonial administration and suggest reforms.Ã¢â¬ (Cowie, 36, 1994) This Congress, however, had no power in terms of action and it can be seen as an attempt by the British to appease Indian nationalists who wanted progress. The seeming uselessness of the Indian National Congress in terms of enforcing changes and reforms can be seen as a great cause of Indian resentment of British nationalism. Even so, a nationalist organisation such as this would not have been possible had it not been for the fact that the British acquainted a group of Indians with European political principles (Cowie 27, 1994). As well as the moderate nationalism that grew within the Indian National Congress, extreme nationalism was also becoming prevalent. Aside from more violent protesters such as Tilak, nonviolent opposition to British imperialism emerged in protesters such as Ghandi. In response to the Rowlatt Acts, which enabled a protester or suspected terrorist to be imprisoned without trial, and the Amritsar massacre, in which 379 unarmed anti-British demonstrators were killed, Ghandi advocated a return to traditional Indian simplicity as opposed to Western materialism (Cowie 41, 1994). This dislike of materialism was owed in part to his experiences in England studying law, where Ã¢â¬Å"he discovered his Indian heritage through the work of 19th century British scholars who had re-created ancient Indian history and revived interest in ancient Indian literature and languageÃ¢â¬ (Cowie 164, 1982). Ghandi also gained insight into his culture through Ã¢â¬Å"discussion with English friends on religion, both Christianity and Hinduism, which he now began to discover on a philosophical levelÃ¢â¬ (Masselos, 121, 1972). GhandiÃ¢â¬â¢s Western education allowed him to develop his radical technique of Ã¢â¬ËsatyagrahaÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëtruth forceÃ¢â¬â¢, whereby laws were opposed with the force of truth and moral consciousness instead of violence. This approach, though mostly a Hindu philosophy, in part derived its inspiration from Christianity, and the idea of turning the other cheek (Masselos, 122, 1972), and Ã¢â¬Å"drew upon humanist and radical strands in Western thoughtÃ¢â¬ (Masselos, 122, 1972). Studying Western history and ideas would have made Ghandi see that many Western approaches and ideas were extremely effective Ã¢â¬â and British forces may have reacted more positively to a method of protest that came partly from their own culture. Exposure to Western culture also aided Ghandi in seeing that satyagraha would be a powerful means of protest in an economic context Ã¢â¬â Ghandi claimed that the application of satyagraha against the British administration Ã¢â¬Å"could so paralyse the economy that the country would become ungovernableÃ¢â¬ (Cowie, 43, 1994). Ghandi used an approach that he had developed partly from his exposure to Western education to cause trouble in a facet of society that he knew was essential to the British consolidation of power in India. At this time, and while the world was in the throes of World War One, the British were committing more acts to instigate resentment amongst Indians. India had a large part in World War One, with more than a million pounds sterling voted from Indian revenues towards the cost of the war (Cowie, 39, 1994). With this in mind, the Montagu Declaration was issued in 1917, promising Ã¢â¬ËgradualÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËprogressiveÃ¢â¬â¢ self-government for India. There was, however, much suspicion that this declaration meant nothing and that Britain had no intention of relinquishing control beyond simple aspects such as health services, agriculture and public works (Cowie, 39, 1994). This of course caused much resentment Ã¢â¬â autonomy was essentially being denied, and in a condescending manner after IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s sacrifice for the Empire in World War One. During the 1920s and 1930s the Indian nationalist movement continued with strength. GhandiÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign for independence went on, with his encouragement of peaceful protest and criticism of British administration and taxes. In 1921, Ghandi called for all Indians to boycott paying taxes on farming tools to the British, a strategy to have a negative effect on the economy. His non-cooperation campaign, despite its nonviolent aims, periodically became violent, and Ghandi was imprisoned in 1922 for instigating the movement. He was released two years later. The movement, however, was quite successful in terms of uniting the country in a movement under one leader (Masselos, 138, 1972), joined by their resentment of British rule. While earlier in the century, the English language and European political principles gave rise to the Indian nationalist movement, these were the tools used to strengthen the movement and to create unity among the Indian people. Many individual events associated with GhandiÃ¢â¬â¢s satyahara approach, such as the Salt March in 1930 which demonstrated defiance of the British monopoly on salt manufacturing, and GhandiÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Quit IndiaÃ¢â¬ campaign that lasted throughout the 1920s and 1930s, led to the eventual independence of India in 1947. The one movement that underpinned singular acts of patriotism was the nationalist movement, led by Ã¢â¬ËMahatmaÃ¢â¬â¢ Ghandi. Ghandi was Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦shrewd enough to utilise the nature of British rule in India to win independence without too much bloodshedÃ¢â¬ (Masani, quoted in Wood, 32, 1989). This movement was made possible by the establishment of English as a unifying language and by acquainting Indians with European political principles, which led to Indian resentment of British nationalism and ultimately to the British loss of control over India. The effects of imperialism are both positive and negative. The positive effects are banning inhumane traditional practices such as sati and the dowry system, promoting widow remarriage and prohibiting child marriage. The negative effects are that Britain caused the traditional industries to crash. Also, poverty increased. British officials were paid out of the India treasury. THE GREAT IMPACT OF IMPERIALISM Fundamentally, the imperialism idea comes from the early modernization concept that began with the 16th century. Afterwards renaissance, catholic reformation and reconnaissance actions follow this concept in order. Then geographical explorations take place in history and in this sense a lightening period exists by the help of these agendas. This lightening period consists of many different ideologies. We see these ideologiesÃ¢â¬â¢ changing and shaping time to time and one of these specific action-oriented ideas is seen as imperialism with its impact on some African and Asian part, in particular, the response of conquered areas to the Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ in late 19th century and early 20th century. In order to express what the imperialism is, it can be said that imperialism is an ideology to make good society by being rooted in a particular economic system, capitalism, and benefits a particular class, which Marxists call the bourgeoisie or ruling class. (Butterfield, 2002) In this sense, we see the colonization action of the Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ under the name of imperialism against the African and Asian part of the world in late 19th and early 20th century. In some countries we see the entire-colonization and in some of them there was semi-colonization according to some reasons that are related with their understanding of modernity and the way that they show their reactions. In general sense it can be implied that the reaction of Sub-Saharan Africa against the impact of Ã¢â¬Å"west imperialismÃ¢â¬ was more strict than the one in Central Asia; in terms of economic reasons, nationalism and religion. To begin with the economic perspective of imperialism, imperialist countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ need of row material and market and the change in the meaning of imperialism seem to be the crucial point. Up to 17th century, imperialism was not related with capitalism because in these times land power was important. However in later period of time, especially in the late19th century the spread of industrialization in the world had achieved the point where international competition for markets was becoming profoundly. After the third threshold of industrial revolution, the new imperialist political ideologies became the state politics of European countries. In this sense colonization action of Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ powers takes place. As a provision, we see the strict; but at the same time invalid reaction of Africans. In Asian side, we donÃ¢â¬â¢t see such kind of strict reaction as it is seen in Africa. This is because of their preparations against the probable imperialistic action of Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ , that can be regarded as the extension of rapid modernization of Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ . Especially European countries could not entirely colonized South Central Asian countries such as Iran and India. For example England could not fight with India; because India was not so weak in terms of economy and because of its economical interdependence, IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s military modernization had been taken place in order to fight with any power. However the situation in Sub-Saharan Africa was not so pleasing. They were still living as tribal societies and they were ready to be treated as slave. First of all, by the investigations of the European missionaries, Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ were aware of the row material sources that were not used, such as cool and diamond. By the power in their hand, Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ took the region under control and made the people work for their benefit. They also made African pay taxes. Actually that led revolt against foreign occupation. Africans tried to kill the tax collectors as time goes by. For example in 1902 a tax collection exercise in Bailundo, in the center of what is now Angola, went badly wrong when local people rebelled violently, attacking tax collectors and traders (both European and African). This was the first time that Africans had rebelled against the Portuguese in Angola. (BBC WORLD SERVICE, no date) That shows how deeply they were affected from the power of Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ . Also we understand that the gloom of Africans did not result from leaving their sources to Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ power. The main point that made them revolt was being made pay taxes. Secondly in terms of nationalism, liberation struggles of colonized countries come next. Fundamentally, the idea of these struggles relies on the French Revolution and the nationalism idea that comes next. In this sense there are structured similarities between Asian and African independence struggles. However the only point that they differ from each other is the process of their struggles. It is because the Asian nations were more ready in terms of military concept by the qualified commanders that came from Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ in the colonization process. Thus their armies were trained professionally by the Europeans and they were ready to fight with the Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ by the technology that came from Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ . Actually, it can be regarded as a contradiction in terms of training the nation and then loss of the colonized land because of the liberation action of that nation. In African side the situation was same; but their liberation process was too long. At that point the lack of modernization agendas can be shown as a reason. One other point about liberation is the modern education concept in Africa and Asia that was supplied by Europeans. Thus we are faced with the same contradiction again. Ã¢â¬Å"WestÃ¢â¬ was supplying the modern education as one of the prerequisite of imperialism and many scientists and thinkers were brought up. As time goes by these thinkers were affected by the ideologies such as nationalism. For example Indian national leader Gandhi was one of them and played a big role on gaining the independence of India after the 2nd World War. (Cody, 1990) In this example we see the specific show of the contradiction that is mentioned above. Lastly to mention about the perspective of religion, the eurocenteric aim of spreading the Christianity all over the world under the idea of imperialism should be discussed. At that point, we see the similarity between South Central Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa again as we saw in liberation concept. In 19th century most of the Asian and African nations were Muslim and this was a big obstacle for the Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ to achieve their aim. Ã¢â¬Å"WestÃ¢â¬ tried to assimilate the Asia and Africa; but they both showed their reaction similarly against the Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ . (Pappas, no date) If it is needed to combine religion with nationalism there is something to think about. If the African and Asian nations had been Christian; may be the nationalism idea would loose its validity and its impact on gaining the independence. Moreover, may be the colonized countries would be still colonized under the power of Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ . So it is obvious that the religion diversity made colonized nations fight for their independent conceit. To sum up the agendas of the impact of imperialist Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ , the insufficiency in the process of modernization and because of this, being under the control of Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ can be expressed as a summary. In the above examples we see that the impact of Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ and the probable reaction of South Central Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa are based on some economical, ideological concepts and religion in the light of many specific processes. Also it was obvious that there were both similarities and diversities between Africa and Asia in the period of Ã¢â¬Å"westÃ¢â¬ imperialism and economical perspective was the most distinct one in terms of diversities. On the other hand in nationalism, liberation struggle, the hope of independence and independent conceit were the common points; although there was a little bit diversity in the sense of the process of these concepts. Positive: Ending Poor Traditions Ã¢â¬ ¢During the process of colonialism, the controlling nation has the power to revise or abolish certain social traditions of the region. This provides a means to eliminate damaging social trends and older ideals. For instance, after India was colonized, the long-standing practice of Sati was finally abolished. Sati was the practice where the first wife of a deceased husband would throw herself, or be thrown, onto the funeral fire with her husband as a show of mourning. It was not until the colonization of India that the rest of the world learned about the practice and moved to outlaw it. Positive: Modernization Ã¢â¬ ¢Colonialism brought modernization to regions that were technologically underdeveloped. Modernization projects included building railroads for open trade, needed medical advancements and schools providing a modern education. These advances helped underdeveloped nations improve their global status as centers for trade. The improvements to education provided an opportunity for colonized students to compete with foreign students in fields including literature, art, math and science. Read more: Positive & Negative Effects of Colonialism | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/info_8505011_positive-negative-effects-colonialism.html#ixzz2MmpHwOQ6 Negative: Segregated Benefits Ã¢â¬ ¢Many of the benefits of colonialism, such as education, were restricted to specific classes of individuals, usually based on skin color or ethnic origin. This segregation lead to a natural segregation throughout colonized countries and established the foundation for a racially segregated future. As an example, the extreme racial segregation in South Africa, known as the apartheid, is a partial result of African colonialism. The education segregation left an economic disparity in South Africa that resulted in continued segregation after the colonial period and a legacy of poor civil rights and human atrocity. Negative: Resource Drain Ã¢â¬ ¢One of the primary goals of colonialism was the establishment of a resource-generating system through which natural resources from colonized regions were gathered and traded by the colonizing nation. This process reduced the availability of natural resources in the colonized nations, leading to times of hunger, poverty and need. Some colonies were heavily farmed, with food stores shipped to feed populations elsewhere while locals survived on less. Further, this created a system where a colonized country could be farmed for its natural wealth, but receive no monetary benefits. Read more: Positive & Negative Effects of Colonialism | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/info_8505011_positive-negative-effects-colonialism.html#ixzz2MmpLOLoP Imperialism in India: Bad or Good? Imperialism has been both positive and negative in the eyes of the Indians. It has helped them, but has also left them with no responsibility in their government. The British called the empire the British Raj. The European colonizers provided many things and helped solve old problems. They brought parts of civilization that most Indians were not able to create by themselves. They built roads and other means of transportation as well as telegraphs. They have helped India become more modernized and built a government that is strong and efficient. Ã¢â¬Å"To sum up the whole, the British rule has been- morally, a great blessing; politically, peace and order..Ã¢â¬ (Dadabhai Naoroji). Imperialism has brought new standards of humanity, like when they stopped infanticide and the slave trade in India. It has also brought industrialization and improved sanitation. Imperialism has also affected the colonizers in a positive way. They get cheap raw materials and make a profit off of what they provide for the Indians. All of this they got from a system of mercantilism. There were, however, a few negative effects of Imperialism. Ã¢â¬Å"All they do is live off of Indian while they are here. When they go, they carry all they have gained.Ã¢â¬ (Naoroji). Naoroji also adds that the natives call the system Ã¢â¬Å"the knife of sugar.Ã¢â¬ Another problem that arose was how the Europeans occupy all of the higher places in the government. Ã¢â¬Å"For a hundred years you have done everything for us. You have given us no responsibility in our own government.Ã¢â¬ (Mohandas Gandhi). Many of the old Indian industries were broken up, causing unemployment and poverty. Some also feel that they are treated as being inferior to the colonizers In 1990, Stephen Covey published The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. A business-oriented self-help book, the volume was a huge bestseller and is still in print today. During the same decade-and-a-half, the American economy grew hugely. A coincidence? Perhaps not. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s face it: our crusade to extend the benefits of Americanism to the rest of the world, especially the Middle East, has not been Effective. Now clearly itÃ¢â¬â¢s time to work CoveyÃ¢â¬â¢s magic on Uncle SamÃ¢â¬â¢s faltering imperial effort. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s what think-tank tigers need to know, the 7 Habits of Highly Effective Imperialists: 1. Be serious about your imperialism Ã¢â¬âthe Great Game is not for dilettantes. Thrilling to accounts of the Battle of Plassey, savoring the Sykes-Picot agreement, taking in seminars at AEIÃ¢â¬âthatÃ¢â¬â¢s not good enough. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s how the Los Angeles Times recently described Doug Feith, undersecretary of defense and leading neo-imperialist, in his home: Ã¢â¬Å"sitting in his library surrounded by stacks of Commentary magazines and books on the British empire and the Middle East.Ã¢â¬ In other words, an armchair warriorÃ¢â¬âliterally. Is it any wonder Feith has been Ineffective? By contrast, the Highly Effective Imperialist gets off his fanny and Ã¢â¬Å"goes native.Ã¢â¬ We might consider, for example, Richard Francis BurtonÃ¢â¬ânow he was Effective. In the days before jets or mints on your hotel room pillow, Burton made his way across five continents. He helped discover the source of the Nile; he was one of the first Westerners to visit Mecca, disguised as an Afghan Muslim. Yet in addition to all his journeys, in addition to writing a half-dozen books and innumerable monographs on people and places, he also learned the local languages; he translated works from Arabic and Hindi, notably the Kama Sutra and The Arabian Nights. Not surprisingly, Burton saw little of England during his adult lifeÃ¢â¬âhe died in Trieste in 1890Ã¢â¬âwhich is to say, Burton lived out the self-sacrificing injunction of Rudyard Kipling: Ã¢â¬Å"Take up the White ManÃ¢â¬â¢s burden/Send forth the best ye breed/Go bind your sons to exile/ To serve your captivesÃ¢â¬â¢ need.Ã¢â¬ If Americans are serious about imperialism, they will make a massive commitment to teaching little Justin and Jennifer the tongues of their new realms: Arabic, Pashtu, Dari, Farsi, Urdu, etc. And then, even more important, they will steel their children for lifetimes of overseas service. Of course, Effective Imperialists must combine ethnic and linguistic Ã¢â¬Å"ground truthÃ¢â¬ with high Machiavellianism. To keep control of India, for example, the British cultivated the Sikhs as a ruling elite. Why? Because the Sikhs were a tiny minority. Once they were installed in the upper reaches of the Raj, the Sikhs were anxious for the Brits to stay, so as to preserve their top-dog status. That approach proved Effective for a century. By contrast, today, is there any American clever enough to see the wisdom of dividing Iraq into three parts, so as to make all three mini-statesÃ¢â¬âSunni, Shia, KurdÃ¢â¬âdependent on the U.S. for border protection? Evidently not. And in any case, weÃ¢â¬â¢re still fighting two out of three of these groups 18 months after liberating them. Feith & Co. navigated by Ã¢â¬Å"moral clarity,Ã¢â¬ not by historical or political landmarks. According to an August report in Rolling Stone, one U.S. Army colonel, a veteran of Middle East work, fluent in Arabic, was interviewed by Feith for a possible job. During the session, Feith looked down at his rÃ ©sumÃ ©, Ã¢â¬Å"I see you speak Arabic,Ã¢â¬ Feith said. When the colonel nodded, Feith snapped, Ã¢â¬Å"too badÃ¢â¬ and dismissed him. To make matters worse, the Feithians appointed their unskilled friends and relativesÃ¢â¬âMichael Fleischer (brother of Ari) and Simone Ledeen (daughter of Michael)Ã¢â¬âto prominent positions in the Coalition Provisional Authority. After a few months of sightseeing and war profiteering, such folks have mostly come homeÃ¢â¬ânot Effective. 2. Get the locals to like you. This is hard, I know. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s counterintuitive to expect that the people youÃ¢â¬â¢re killing will give you their hearts and minds. In the words of Voltaire, Ã¢â¬Å"It would be easier to subjugate the entire universe through force of arms than the minds of a single village.Ã¢â¬ It took the British two difficult decades to subdue the Sudanese Muslims in the late 19th century, but by the mid-20th century, Sudan had gained its independenceÃ¢â¬âand also great hostility to the West. Other British colonial non-success stories include Zimbabwe, which is one of the few countries where London is hated more than Washington. We might also recall that the British Ã¢â¬Å"liberatedÃ¢â¬ Iraq twice in the last century, in 1917 and in 1941. And what do they have to show for the gravestones they left behind in Mesopotamia? Today, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ turn to score low as colonizers. One poll taken this spring showed that 92 percent of Iraqis saw Americans as occupiers; just two percent saw them as liberators. As George W. Bush himself conceded on April 13, Ã¢â¬Å"I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be happy if I were occupied either.Ã¢â¬ During the Athens Olympics, the Bush-Cheney campaign sought to make re-election hay out of the Iraq soccer teamÃ¢â¬â¢s success; yet an Iraqi player cut the Rovers off at midfield, telling the Americans: Ã¢â¬Å"We want to live. Stop killing civilians. Help rebuild Iraq instead of destroying it.Ã¢â¬ We might call this Mission Not Accomplished. So what to do? Once again, the Effective Imperialist looks to whatÃ¢â¬â¢s worked in the past. England and Scotland had fought each other for eonsÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ and all thatÃ¢â¬âbut they merged in 1603 when James VI of Scotland inherited the English crown and became James I of England. Four centuries later, the relationship still works. So today, if some rising young buck in the Bush dynasty went to Iraq, married a girl named Sistani, embraced Shia Islam, and brought the new Mrs. Bush home to social and political prominence, that would be the beginning of a beautiful transnational friendship. A future American president with a ShariÃ¢â¬â¢a-worthy beard might not please American neocons, but he would be Effective at earning Iraqi allegiance. 3. Be ruthless. If Habit #2 doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work, then try Habit #3. We might consider, for example, the Effectiveness Lesson in the Book of Samuel. God said to Saul: Ã¢â¬Å"Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass.Ã¢â¬ But while Saul mostly followed the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s commandment, he spared a few folks and critters. God was outraged at this insufficient ruthlessness. As future-king Samuel explained to soon-to-be-ex-king Saul, Ã¢â¬Å"Thou hast rejected the word of the Lord, and the Lord hath rejected thee from being king over Israel.Ã¢â¬ So Samuel had to mop up, completing the earth-scorching. Now thatÃ¢â¬â¢s Effectiveness. Similarly, when the Romans wanted to be rid of troublesome Carthage once and for all, they flattened the city and plowed the leveled ground with salt. Carthago was truly delenda, and it hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been heard from since. More recently, when white Americans and Australians wanted to Manifest their Destiny over their respective continents, they mostly massacred the aboriginal peoples, occasionally deigning to miscegenate with them. The Chinese are using equally Effective tactics in Tibet today. In geopolitics, possession-by-domination is nine-tenths of the law; demography is political destiny. In the meantime, after 213 years of attempted subjugation, the Russians are still Ineffective in Chechnya. Vladimir Putin might be asking himself, Ã¢â¬Å"WWSDÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âWhat Would Stalin Do? And the answer to that question might well be: total wipeout, by any WMD necessary. Note to other countries dealing with uppity populations: itÃ¢â¬â¢s genocide, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s been proven Effective. 4. Got allies? YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll need some. The Venetian Republic lasted for a thousand years because the doges were wily enough to use mercenaries and surrogates in their endless wars with their fellow Italians, then Byzantines, then Ottoman Turks. For their part, the British didnÃ¢â¬â¢t succeed in taking down Louis XIV, Napoleon, the Kaiser, and Hitler all by themselves. For centuries, London built balance-of-power coalitions that enabled Albion to preserve its sea power, while not getting bogged down in losing ground wars. Similarly, when the U.S. has had alliesÃ¢â¬âfrom World War I to Gulf War I to Kosovo to AfghanistanÃ¢â¬âthe fighting has generally been Effective. But AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s more unilateral wars, such as Vietnam and Gulf War II, have been Ineffective. Having allies helps in other ways, tooÃ¢â¬âespecially if you have an ogre for an ally. The American occupation of Germany and Japan was eased by the menacing specter of the Soviets, just across the Elbe and the East Sea. The message was clear: if the surrendered Germans and Japanese ever became too troublesome, the Americans would exit and the Red Army would enter. No wonder we were so Effective. In the case of occupied Iraq today, suppose Turkey or Iran had invaded the country at the same time as American forces. By now the American sector might well seem like paradise compared to the Turkish or Iranian sector. Plus those occupiers would be no-nonsense in their Ã¢â¬Å"pacificationÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âsee Habit #3, above. 5. Be realistic. Politics is the art of the possible, said Bismarck. In the same vein, the Effective Imperialist doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t over-promise. In 2003, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace did a study of the 16 major Ã¢â¬Å"nation-buildingÃ¢â¬ efforts conducted by the U.S. and found that just fourÃ¢â¬âGermany, Japan, Grenada in 1983, Panama in 1989Ã¢â¬âhad been Effective. The other 12, stretched from Haiti to Nicaragua to South Vietnam, were Ineffective. The basic lesson is that culture matters most. The Germans, for example, proved capable of utter barbarism under Nazi rule, but after having lost eight million in the warÃ¢â¬âsee Habit #3 againÃ¢â¬âthey were ready, post-1945, to change their ways and resume being a Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ European country again. So Germany proved peaceful and prosperous, just like its neighbors; the death of Hitler helped restore the nation to the generally upward trend line of its neighborhood. It was good news that the Germans blended back into their environment, but it was also not surprisingÃ¢â¬âEurope is a civilization. Arab Islam is a civilization, too. And itÃ¢â¬â¢s not surprising that Iraq seems to be reverting to its neighborhood trend line, which, of course, is not auspicious for American dreams of a Ã¢â¬Å"democratic transformationÃ¢â¬ of Iraq. To put it another way, Islam is a tough nut to crack. Nowhere in the world, except maybe Attica prison, does a white minority rule successfully over a Muslim majority, which leads us to the Sixth Habit of Effective Imperialists. 6. Leave quicklyÃ¢â¬âand set up a puppet government. In July 1958, President Dwight Eisenhower ordered 14,000 U.S. Marines to go ashore in Lebanon to prop up the U.S.-backed government. Three months later, having accomplished that mission, they all pulled out; exactly one American was killed by hostile fire. By contrast, when President Ronald Reagan ordered the Marines back into Lebanon in August 1982, he kept them there for 18 monthsÃ¢â¬âand 254 Leathernecks lost their lives amidst growing resistance. Today, we have been in Afghanistan for almost three years, and in Iraq for 18 months. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s safe to say that we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t growing more popular in either place. Instead, the Effective Imperialist uses surrogates for long-term country-control. The Shah, for example, gave us 26 good years of sway in Iran, although admittedly the 25 years since his fall in 1979 have been disappointing. But the search for new toolsÃ¢â¬âhuman toolsÃ¢â¬âcontinues. And so on to Baghdad. In October 2002, the Israeli newspaper HaÃ¢â¬â¢aretz reported that Rep. Tom Lantos, ranking Democrat on the House International Affairs Committee, had soothed a visiting Israeli politician with these assurances about the future of Iraq: Ã¢â¬Å"My dear Collette, donÃ¢â¬â¢t worry. You wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have any problem with Saddam. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll be rid of the bastard soon enough. And in his place weÃ¢â¬â¢ll install a pro-Western dictator, who will be good for you and good for us.Ã¢â¬ Enter Ahmad Chalabi. Exit Ahmad Chalabi. And while Chalabi did not meet expectations, Iyad Allawi is showing heÃ¢â¬â¢s toughÃ¢â¬âtough on press freedom at least. And while it might not be prudent to write a life-insurance policy for the new Iraqi strongman, itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible that he will survive and thrive. But whether or not Allawi makes it, Americans on the home front should develop a taste for hummus and biryani. Just as curry and couscous are national dishes of Britain and France today, thanks to the recasting of their populations as a byproduct of conquest, Americans, too, should prepare for demographic and culinary transition. Today, the difference between the colonizer and the colonized isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just firepowerÃ¢â¬âitÃ¢â¬â¢s birthrates. One way or another, lots of Iraqis are going to end up in the U.S.; Allawi himself may live and die in his homeland, but lots of his friends and relatives will find new homesÃ¢â¬ânext door to the late ShahÃ¢â¬â¢s kin and cronies, maybe in Beverly Hills. Of course, not every Iraqi coming to the American Ã¢â¬Å"mother countryÃ¢â¬ will be carrying a suitcase stuffed with cash. Some will be carrying other things in their bags, which brings us to the seventh and last point in our Effectiveness tutorial. 7. Brace yourself for tragedy. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s coming. At the height of Roman Imperial Effectiveness, the poet Juvenal wrote plangently, Ã¢â¬Å"The country weeps for its victories.Ã¢â¬ A study by the Cato Institute counted 98 wars and military campaigns waged by the British from 1800 to 1906. Kipling, the bard of imperialism, poeticized the fate of many of his countrymen: Ã¢â¬Å"When youÃ¢â¬â¢re wounded and left on AfghanistanÃ¢â¬â¢s plains/And the women come out to cut up what remains/Jest roll to your rifle and blow out your brains/AnÃ¢â¬â¢ go to your Gawd like a soldier.Ã¢â¬ Sometimes, the tragedy comes later to the Imperial Country. After the fall of the Bastille in 1789, the young minds of Europe were aflame with thoughts of revolutionary restructuring. Nowhere was enthusiasm for the AufklÃ ¤rung greater than among German intellectuals. As the historian Isaiah Berlin observed, Ã¢â¬Å"Almost without exception, they began by welcoming the French Revolution rapturously, planting trees of liberty and denouncing as obsolete and brutally oppressive the rule of the three hundred German princes.Ã¢â¬ But then the dialectical wheel turned, as the French overplayed their hand. Ã¢â¬Å"Horrified by the Terror and wounded by the national humiliation of Germany by the armies of Revolutionary France and, still more, those of Napoleon,Ã¢â¬ those same Germans, Berlin continued, Ã¢â¬Å"turned into patriots, reactionaries and romantic irrationalists.Ã¢â¬ One such was Beethoven. Living at the time in Vienna, the young composer intended to dedicate his Third Symphony to Napoleon, but after the French leader crowned himself emperor in 1804, he tore up the Ã¢â¬Å"EroicaÃ¢â¬ dedication. Less than a decade later, Beethoven composed a celebratory piece entitled Ã¢â¬Å"WellingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Victory.Ã¢â¬ And so the fervent Francophiles of not-yet-Germany were transformed into even more fervent Francophobes. Most likely, Napoleon went to his grave in 1821 without thinking much about the deep geysers of sentiment he had helped uncork. But the unifying Germans thought deeply about their humiliation and insult; for half a century they brooded and plotted. And then in 1870, 1914, and 1940, they crossed the Rhine, each time wreaking horrible vengeance and violence. In contemporary Iraq, our brave troops might be holding up well, but they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t just filling up future pages of glorious American military history. They are also unintentionally collaborating in the composition of future sagas of Sunni and Shia martyrdom. Today, the fighting in Iraq is asymmetrical: our F-16s, their AK-47s. But tomorrow, the asymmetrical action could shift to America: their WMD, our cities. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s called Ã¢â¬Å"blowback,Ã¢â¬ and itÃ¢â¬â¢s a darn nuisance. To date, Americans have been Effective at spending money in Iraq, and little else. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s not too late to learn the Seven Habits of Imperial Effectiveness. If Americans are prepared to liveÃ¢â¬âindeed, to dieÃ¢â¬âby those Habits, we can look forward, at least, to pacifying Fallujah.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
The terms Sustainable and Sustainability are used to describe many different approaches for improving our life. Sustainability is about people and culture, our environment, jobs or countries. Could be defended as an ability or capacity of something to be maintained or to sustain itself. It s about taking what we need to live now. There is many departments of sustainability but the main are three environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and social sustainability. The term sustainability in a business or company means a lot. Business sustainability is the management and coordination of environmental, social and finance demands and concerns to ensure responsible ethical and ongoing success. Sustainability is about good business and successful life improvement. Starbucks Company story began in 1971 with a single store in Seattle s pike Place Market. Starbucks named after mate in Herman Melville s Moby Dick and their logo is also by the sea, featuring a twin-tailed siren from Greek mythology. Their mission is to inspire and nature the human spirit - one person, one cup and more neighbourhood. Now Starbucks Corporation is the largest coffee house company in the world, with over 17000 stores in more than fifty countries, which they serve 50 million customers every week. That s why i choose Starbucks because first i love their coffee and second i was curious to learn, see and examine how can this company can be sustainably with 17000 stores all over the world.Show MoreRelatedThe Sustainability, Economic Sustainability And Social Sustainability1861 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSustainable and Sustainability are used to describe many different approaches for improving our life. Sustainability is about people and culture, our environment, jobs or cou ntries. 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Friday, December 27, 2019
JOURNAL ARTICLE: Ã¢â¬Å"WHO WAS THE WOMAN?Ã¢â¬ FEMININE SPACE AND SHAPING OF INDETITY IN Ã¢â¬Å"THE SOUND AND THE FURYÃ¢â¬ This Journal Article examines FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Sound and The Fury,Ã¢â¬ from the perspective of the feminist geography. It will explore the spatial experiences of the three Compton women; Mrs. Compson, Caddy, and her daughter Miss Quentin, who are portrayed in the story as under patriarchy. The article also examines the relationship between gender, space, and self in the novel. Although the story is narrated by male characters, the three Compton women are seen as an essential part in the novel. One can also say the mother-daughter plot could be seen as the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s core, according to the journal article. Feminist geography is a product of combining two or more academic disciplines of dialogues between feminist studies and literary geography within the context of the spatial turn, in the novel. It emerged in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s and has since blossomed since the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, and they include the complex interactions between space and gender, and the way gendere d social roles and identities are defined by spatial environments. Feminist geography is opening up new avenues of literary studies, and has become regarded as a significant interpretative paradigm. FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Sound and The Fury,Ã¢â¬ exposes the disintegration of the Southern aristocratic Compson family from multiple perspectives, as I have mentioned above, about the three Compson women. According to the article, littleShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Sound And The Fury 1637 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDilsey and her Children The role of a mother or a maternal figure plays a very significant role in the development of a child. Such can be seen in William FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Sound and the Fury, through a character named Dilsey. Dilsey plays the role of a maternal figure to the children in her family, but also some of the children of the Compson family, and while doing so exposes some of the underlying issues within the older members of the family. DilseyÃ¢â¬â¢s character is described as representingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Sound And The Fury 2069 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesnjyÃ¢â¬â¢s Bellow `It is often said that one Ã¢â¬Å"should not judge a book by its coverÃ¢â¬ . As one reads The Sound and the Fury, which is set in the post-civil war South and portrays the decline of the aristocratic Compson familyÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth and the corruption of their Southern values of honor, chivalry, Ã¢â¬Å"purityÃ¢â¬ of women, and family reputation, one notices that the character of mentally handicapped Benjy Compson is presented as that of an Ã¢â¬Å"idiotÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"slobbering looneyÃ¢â¬ who moves Ã¢â¬Å"with a shambling gait like aRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The Sound And The Fury 1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger is a modern novel focused on identity. The novel focuses around the life of a confused young man named Holden who is lost in his adolescents and struggling to find his way into adulthood. The Sound and The Fury written by William Faulkner, is a novel that takes place in Mississippi and follows the decline of the Compson family. The construction of the novel is split into four different parts, where each one is narrated by a different character. Benjy, JasonRead More Analysis of Memory and Time in FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Sound and the Fury932 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSartre and BrooksÃ¢â¬â¢ Literary Critiques: Analysis of Memory and Time in FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Sound and the Fury Ã¢â¬Å"History is the witness that testifies to the passing of time.Ã¢â¬ Cicero presaged the study of historical memory and conceptions of time, which assumes that what and how we remember molds our past into something more than a chronological succession of events. Ever more appreciative of the subjectivity of recollection, we grasp that without memory, time passes away as little more than sterileRead More BleikastenÃ¢â¬â¢s Literary Analysis of FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Sound and the Fury823 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBleikastenÃ¢â¬â¢s Literary Analysis of FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Sound and the Fury By focusing on the figure of Caddy, BleikastenÃ¢â¬â¢s essay works to understand the ambiguous nature of modern literature, FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s personal interest in Caddy, and the role she plays as a fictional character in relation to both her fictional brothers and her actual readers. To Bleikasten, Caddy seems to function on multiple levels: as a desired creation; as a fulfillment of what was lacking in FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s life; and/or as a thematicRead MoreAn Analysis Of Edith Wharton s The Sound And The Fury Essay2509 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagescentred around protagonist Nora Frenway, who is faced with several difficulties on her journey to see her ill, clandestine lover Christopher at Westover. The story is written in third person narration, where it was first published in 1927. The Sound and the Fury (1929) by William Faulkner is a novel told in four sections about the affairs regarding the Compson family. In this novel the first three sections focus on the consciousness of each of the brothers in the novel; Benjy, Quentin and Jason. TheRead MoreThe Sound and the Fury: Riding the Stream of Conciousness Essay990 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn William Faulkners novel, The Sound and the Fury, the characters narrate in a style in such a way that they are able to express a multitude of different thoughts or feelings at once. This narrative style is known as stream of consciousness. Through this, each of the characters express everything that is going through their mind whether it is through interior monologue or through a conversation with others (Mohammad and Alirezazadeh). Although all of the characters narrate through stream of consciousnessRead More A Psychoanalytic Approach to Faulkners The Sound and the Fury1363 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA Psychoanalytic Approach to Faulkners The Sound and the Fury Ã Ã In Faulkners work, The Sound and the Fury, Caddy is never given an interior monologue of her own; she is seen only through the gaze of her brothers, and even then only in retreat, standing in doorways, running, vanishing, forever elusive, forever just out of reach.Ã Caddy seems, then, to be simultaneously absent and present; with her, Faulkner evokes an absent presence, or the absent center of the novel, as AndrÃ © BleikastenRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Influence On The Sound And The Fury2240 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Influence on The Sound and the Fury As all writers do, Faulkner had many literary influences that can be seen in his writing. Faulkner once said, Ã¢â¬Å"I think everything a writer reads influences his work. He is completely immoral, he has no hesitancy whatever about taking what he wants from any source he wantsÃ¢â¬ (Faulkner, Ã¢â¬Å"Blotner and GwynnÃ¢â¬â¢s Classes, tape 2Ã¢â¬ ). A major influence on FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s work is Shakespeare, especially on The Sound and the Fury. Faulkner used his love of ShakespeareRead MoreThe Lynching By Claude Mckay1367 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The Lynching Analysis Chloe Chrysikopoulos How to Read a Poem ARTL 100 October 31, 2014 As Ida B Wells said, Ã¢â¬Å"Our country s national crime is lynching. It is not the creature of an hour, the sudden outburst of uncontrolled fury, or the unspeakable brutality of an insane mob.Ã¢â¬ Claude McKay in his sonnet The Lynching describes the gruesome reality of a lynching and how Ã¢â¬Å"it is not the creature of an hour, the sudden outburst of uncontrolled furyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ but simply white men, women, and